- FAM (fluorescein), HEX, JOE, ROX, TAMRA, TET and Texas Red®
- Fluorescein dT and Tamra dT
- Cyanine dyes
FAM, JOE, TAMRA and ROX are the “big four” dyes that have dominated DNA sequencing. The Cyanine dyes have found widespread use in DNA and RNA labelling.
- FLUORESCENCE QUENCHERS
- FRET fluorescence quenchers (including BHQs)
- Dabcyl and other collisional quenchers
Fluorescence quenchers absorb energy from a fluorophore (fluorescent dye), so that the fluorophore does not emit light when excited by light at a different wavelength. Quenchers operate via two distinct mechanisms: FRET quenching and collisional quenching.